In this part of the Java 2D games tutorial, we will create a Java Snake game clone.

Snake

Snake is an older classic video game. It was first created in late 70s. Later it was brought to PCs. In this game the player controls a snake. The objective is to eat as many apples as possible. Each time the snake eats an apple, its body grows. The snake must avoid the walls and its own body. This game is sometimes called Nibbles.

Development

The size of each of the joints of a snake is 10px. The snake is controlled with the cursor keys. Initially the snake has three joints. The game is started by pressing one of the cursor keys. If the game is finished, we display Game Over message in the middle of the Board.

Board.java
package snake2;

import java.awt.Color;
import java.awt.Font;
import java.awt.FontMetrics;
import java.awt.Graphics;
import java.awt.Image;
import java.awt.Toolkit;
import java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
import java.awt.event.ActionListener;
import java.awt.event.KeyAdapter;
import java.awt.event.KeyEvent;

import javax.swing.ImageIcon;
import javax.swing.JPanel;
import javax.swing.Timer;

public class Board extends JPanel implements ActionListener {

    private final int WIDTH = 300;
    private final int HEIGHT = 300;
    private final int DOT_SIZE = 10;
    private final int ALL_DOTS = 900;
    private final int RAND_POS = 29;
    private final int DELAY = 140;

    private int x[] = new int[ALL_DOTS];
    private int y[] = new int[ALL_DOTS];

    private int dots;
    private int apple_x;
    private int apple_y;

    private boolean left = false;
    private boolean right = true;
    private boolean up = false;
    private boolean down = false;
    private boolean inGame = true;

    private Timer timer;
    private Image ball;
    private Image apple;
    private Image head;

    public Board() {
        addKeyListener(new TAdapter());

        setBackground(Color.black);

        ImageIcon iid = new ImageIcon(this.getClass().getResource("dot.png"));
        ball = iid.getImage();

        ImageIcon iia = new ImageIcon(this.getClass().getResource("apple.png"));
        apple = iia.getImage();

        ImageIcon iih = new ImageIcon(this.getClass().getResource("head.png"));
        head = iih.getImage();

        setFocusable(true);
        initGame();
    }

    public void initGame() {

        dots = 3;

        for (int z = 0; z < dots; z++) {
            x[z] = 50 - z*10;
            y[z] = 50;
        }

        locateApple();

        timer = new Timer(DELAY, this);
        timer.start();
    }

    public void paint(Graphics g) {
        super.paint(g);

        if (inGame) {

            g.drawImage(apple, apple_x, apple_y, this);

            for (int z = 0; z < dots; z++) {
                if (z == 0)
                    g.drawImage(head, x[z], y[z], this);
                else g.drawImage(ball, x[z], y[z], this);
            }

            Toolkit.getDefaultToolkit().sync();
            g.dispose();

        } else {
            gameOver(g);
        }
    }

    public void gameOver(Graphics g) {
        String msg = "Game Over";
        Font small = new Font("Helvetica", Font.BOLD, 14);
        FontMetrics metr = this.getFontMetrics(small);

        g.setColor(Color.white);
        g.setFont(small);
        g.drawString(msg, (WIDTH - metr.stringWidth(msg)) / 2,
                     HEIGHT / 2);
    }

    public void checkApple() {

        if ((x[0] == apple_x) && (y[0] == apple_y)) {
            dots++;
            locateApple();
        }
    }

    public void move() {

        for (int z = dots; z > 0; z--) {
            x[z] = x[(z - 1)];
            y[z] = y[(z - 1)];
        }

        if (left) {
            x[0] -= DOT_SIZE;
        }

        if (right) {
            x[0] += DOT_SIZE;
        }

        if (up) {
            y[0] -= DOT_SIZE;
        }

        if (down) {
            y[0] += DOT_SIZE;
        }
    }

    public void checkCollision() {

          for (int z = dots; z > 0; z--) {

              if ((z > 4) && (x[0] == x[z]) && (y[0] == y[z])) {
                  inGame = false;
              }
          }

        if (y[0] > HEIGHT) {
            inGame = false;
        }

        if (y[0] < 0) {
            inGame = false;
        }

        if (x[0] > WIDTH) {
            inGame = false;
        }

        if (x[0] < 0) {
            inGame = false;
        }
    }

    public void locateApple() {
        int r = (int) (Math.random() * RAND_POS);
        apple_x = ((r * DOT_SIZE));
        r = (int) (Math.random() * RAND_POS);
        apple_y = ((r * DOT_SIZE));
    }

    public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {

        if (inGame) {
            checkApple();
            checkCollision();
            move();
        }

        repaint();
    }

    private class TAdapter extends KeyAdapter {

        public void keyPressed(KeyEvent e) {

            int key = e.getKeyCode();

            if ((key == KeyEvent.VK_LEFT) && (!right)) {
                left = true;
                up = false;
                down = false;
            }

            if ((key == KeyEvent.VK_RIGHT) && (!left)) {
                right = true;
                up = false;
                down = false;
            }

            if ((key == KeyEvent.VK_UP) && (!down)) {
                up = true;
                right = false;
                left = false;
            }

            if ((key == KeyEvent.VK_DOWN) && (!up)) {
                down = true;
                right = false;
                left = false;
            }
        }
    }
}

First we will define the constants used in our game.

private final int WIDTH = 300;
private final int HEIGHT = 300;
private final int DOT_SIZE = 10;
private final int ALL_DOTS = 900;
private final int RAND_POS = 29;
private final int DELAY = 140;

The WIDTH and HEIGHT constants determine the size of the Board. The DOT_SIZE is the size of the apple and the dot of the snake. The ALL_DOTS constant defines the maximum number of possible dots on the Board. (900 = 300*300/10*10) The RAND_POS constant is used to calculate a random position of an apple. The DELAY constant determines the speed of the game.

private int x[] = new int[ALL_DOTS];
private int y[] = new int[ALL_DOTS];

These two arrays store x, y coordinates of all joints of a snake.

In the move() method we have the key algorithm of the game. To understand it, look at how the snake is moving. You control the head of the snake. You can change its direction with the cursor keys. The rest of the joints move one position up the chain. The second joint moves where the first was, the third joint where the second was etc.

 for (int z = dots; z > 0; z--) {
     x[z] = x[(z - 1)];
     y[z] = y[(z - 1)];
 }

This code moves the joints up the chain.

if (left) {
    x[0] -= DOT_SIZE;
}

Move the head to the left.

In the checkCollision() method, we determine if the snake has hit itself or one of the walls.

for (int z = dots; z > 0; z--) {

    if ((z > 4) && (x[0] == x[z]) && (y[0] == y[z])) {
        inGame = false;
    }
}

Finish the game, if the snake hits one of its joints with the head.

if (y[0] > HEIGHT) {
    inGame = false;
}

Finish the game, if the snake hits the bottom of the Board.

Snake.java
package snake2;

import javax.swing.JFrame;

public class Snake extends JFrame {

    public Snake() {

        add(new Board());

        setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
        setSize(320, 340);
        setLocationRelativeTo(null);
        setTitle("Snake");

        setResizable(false);
        setVisible(true);
    }    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new Snake();
    }
}

This is the main class.

Snake

Figure: Snake

This was the Snake game.

 

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